May 1943 to November 1952
Karl Germer, aka Frater Saturnus, was a German-born publisher, Freemason, Thelemite, and student of Aleister Crowley and successor of Crowley as the Outer Head of the Order (OHO) of Ordo Templi Orientis and head of the Argentum Astrum (A.: A.:) from 1947 until his death in 1962.
He survived periodic imprisonment in Nazi and Vichy French concentration camps from 1935 – 1941 for being a Freemason and his connection to Thelema and Crowley. Upon his release in 1941, he emigrated to the United States. From 1942 – 1947 he served as the Grand Treasurer for the OTO, and then succeeded Crowley following the Master Therion’s death in 1947.
He exchanged correspondences with Jack Parsons for many years, including mediating a dispute within the Agape Lodge Parsons was leading as the acting Master. They continued their correspondence even after Parsons resigned from the OTO in 1947, until Parsons death in 1952.